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How to Reference - Key Stage 4 & Sixth Form Student Guide: FAQs

A guide to using the Harvard Anglia Referencing System for GCSE, IB and A-level students

Frequently Asked Questions: Referencing

How do I reference notes from my teacher?  

The reference which you add to your reference list will include:

Lecturer/Author, Initials., Year. Title of item, Module title. School Name, unpublished. 

For example:

Makselon, J. 2013. The research process for EPQ, EPQ lesson. Tanglin Trust School, unpublished.

The citation would be: (Makselon, 2013)

If your work is for assessed coursework then you must check with your teacher that they agree to their notes being included in your reference list.   For assessed coursework you will need to include a copy of the notes in the Appendix of your work.  The citation will then refer to the Appendix.


How do I find out when a website was published? 

You can paste this command into your browser when you have a webpage open and it will tell you the last time it was modified : 


If it doesn't work, try using a different web browser such as Internet Explorer.

How do I reference YouTube videos?
Your reference for a YouTube video should include:
Screen name of contributor,Year. Video Title, Series Title (if relevant) [type of medium] Available at: include web site address/URL [Accessed date]. 
For example:
pocketofjakes, 2012. Online now. [video online] Available at:<> [Accessed 6 March 2013].
The citation would be: (pocketjakes, 2012)


Do I have to cite a source every time I use it?  

Yes, it must always be clear when you are using information from another source so you must include a citation every time. Don't worry if your work includes lots of citations, you should be finding a range of good resources to support your work and research so this may mean you have a large number of citations.


Should I use footnotes? 

The Harvard Anglia Referencing System does not use footnotes or endnotes. In the Harvard system, the author's surname and year of publication are cited in the text of your work. The full details of the source are included in a reference list at the end of the assignment. 


How do I organise my reference list? 

Your reference list is organised in alphabetical order by the author's surname. All types of sources are listed together in the same list (ie don't separate books, websites, articles etc.) If you have used more than one item by the same author, list them in date order, with the earliest date first.

Do I just have to reference direct quotes? 
No, you must reference all information which you include in your essay, except 'common knowledge' and your own original thoughts. Include a citation in the body of your work to indicate which information is from a particular source.  A reference list is included at the end of your work to provide full details to the reader about the source of information.


How do I find the author of a website?

If you have used an article from a website you will usually find the author's name either at the top or bottom of the piece of writing. If you can't find an author for the page you are using then you can use the author of the website.  This may be a company or an organisation, for example BBC or The Royal College of Nursing. Look for the 'Contact Us' or 'About Us' page of the website, this is where you should find details of the owner of the website.


How do I reference a source which is mentioned in another source? 

You may, for example, read a book which mentions a study and you want to include information about that study in your work.  If possible, try and get hold of the original study (if you need help with this, ask a librarian).  You may not be able to access the original study, in which case, include a citation which looks like this:

(Bamber, 1999 cited in Cooper, 2011, p.145)

The reference list at the end of your piece of work should only include works that you have read.  In this example you would include the book in your reference list, but not the study.

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