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Summary : Since the end of World War II, tsunamis have killed more people in the United States than the very earthquakes that often trigger them. Amazing accounts of the deadly tsunamis that rocked the Hawaiian shores in 1946 and 1960. Explores how these massive waves form and why forecasting them remains as confounding for scientists as trying to predict the whims of nature.
This series poses the questions children often ask about their world and then offers the science solutions that are interesting, approachable and well-taught. This book teaches about the natural disasters, from earthquakes, to tornadoes and floods and volcanoes using Q&A format, timelines, and "Try This" activities. Both highly visual and engaging, it will assist in the easy understanding of some complex concepts and processes.
Natural Disasters details the most catastrophic events that have shocked the world since history began. These are events that people have no control over - the sheer power of monster waves, booming avalanches and raging bushfires. Discover how rescue teams operate, and how experts try to predict and prevent disaster.
Teaming up with The Weather Channel to answer ALL of your questions about weather- everything and how to survive! Forces of Nature will answer ALL of your questions about weather- everything from thunderous storms to earthquakes, blizzards, hurricanes, and more!
Tsunamis explores the fearsome and unpredictable power of the sea. Discover how an underwater earthquake can trigger waves that wipe out coastlines, rear up over buildings and hurl ships into city streets. Case studies in the book include the swamping of Okushiri Island, Japan, the south-western coast of Peru, the collossal Indian Ocean disaster, and more.
Causes of tsunamis
The name "tsunami" came from Japanese. It means harbor wave. It is usually caused by volcanic or earthquake activity under the ocean, sometimes it can also be caused by giant landslides.
When an earthquake, volcano or landslide happens on the ocean floor, water is displaced. This water forms the start of the tsunami. When the waves reach shallower water:
their height can increase by several metres
the shallow water slows the wave
the waves get closer together
The most obvious sign of a tsunami is the coastal water retreats just before the waves reach the shore. This is actually the trough of the wave following behind.
Tsunami can eventually crash onto the shoreline. The effects on a community can be devastating.
On 26 December 2004 a tsunami occurred in the Indian Ocean. It was the result of the Indio-Australian Plate subducting below the Eurasian Plate. It was caused by an earthquake measuring more than magnitude 9. The earthquake caused the seafloor to uplift, displacing the seawater above.
In open ocean the tsunami measured less than 1m high.
The tsunami travelled at speeds up to 800km per hour.
When the Tsunami reached the shores, the height of the wave increased to 15m in some areas.
Facts & Impacts
A quarter of a million people died.
Two million people were made homeless.
People were swept away in the waters, which arrived rapidly and with little warning.
Thirteen countries were affected, the worst being Indonesia.
Indonesia was hit by the tsunami first. Fourty-five minutes later the tsunami reached Thailand.
Mangrove swamps helped to act as a barrier to reduce the energy of the water in some areas.
Short-term aid, such as water purification tablets, temporary housing and medical supplies were given from international countries.
Islands reliant on tourism and fishing, such as the Maldives, had to rebuild their industries.
An early warning system between countries surrounding the Indian Ocean has been set up.
Since earthquakes cannot be predicted, we do not know when a tsunami will happen before the earthquake occurs. Once a large potentially tsunamigenic earthquake does occur, we can forecast tsunami arrival times and wave heights through the use of computer modeling.
Scientists have made great strides in monitoring and predicting the ongoing threat of tsunamis. One center continuously monitoring seismic events and changes in the tide level is the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) located in Ewa Beach, Hawaii. This center is of particular importance because submarine earthquakes in this region have created waves that moved throughout the Pacific Ocean before striking elsewhere.
Prepare a disaster supplies kit for your home and car. Include a first aid kit, canned food and a can opener, bottled water, battery-operated radio, flashlight, protective clothing and written instructions on how to turn off electricity, gas, and water.
DURING A TSUNAMI:
Follow the instructions issued by local authorities.
You will probably want to evacuate immediately.
Get to higher ground and as far inland as you can.
AFTER A TSUNAMI:
Help injured or trapped people.
Stay out of a building if water remains around it. Tsunami waters can cause buildings to sink, floors to crack, or walls to collapse.