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IGCSE Geography - Revision guide: Economic Development

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Employment structures, Agriculture, The Farm as a system, Wet rice farming

Industry, high tech industry, case study of Biopolis

Leisure & tourism, impact of tourism (case study Kenya),benefits / problems of tourism

Farms processes

Inputs are what go into the farm. There are two types of input. The natural or physical inputs include weather, climate, relief (height, shape and aspect), soil, geology and latitude. Farmers have little or no control over these.
Examples of human inputs include machinery, fertiliser, pesticides, seeds, livestock, animal feed, workers and buildings. These usually have to be paid for, although farmers can save some money by producing some of these themselves,
Outputs are what the farm produces e.g. grains, eggs, milk, meat etc.
Processes are the types of work that are carried out on the farming. It varies with the type of farm e.g. ploughing, seeding and harvesting are important on an arable farm, whereas a major activity is milking on a dairy (livestock) farm.

Factors affecting industry location

Factors Influencing Industrial Location

1. Availability of raw materials

2. Availability of Labour

3. Proximity to Markets

4. Transport Facilities

5. Power

6. Site and Services

7. Finance

8. Natural and Climatic Considerations

9. Personal Factors

10. Strategic Considerations

11. External Economies 

12. Miscellaneous Factors 


Livestock stats

  • More than one third of the world’s grain harvest is used to feed livestock. 
  • Breaking that down a little bitThe total cattle population for the world is approximately 1.3 billion occupying some 24% of the land of the planet 
  • Almost all rice is consumed by people
  • While corn is a staple food in many Latin American and Sub-Saharan countries, “worldwide, it is used largely as feed.
  • Wheat is more evenly divided between food and feed and is a staple food in many regions such as the West, China and India.
  • Some 70 to 80% of grain produced in the United States is fed to livestock 
  • Half the water consumed in the U.S. is used to grow grain for cattle feed. 
  • A gallon of gasoline is required to produce a pound of grain-fed beef

source : Global issues

Topics to Study

Employment structure

Employment Structures
Employment structure means how the workforce is divided up between the three main employment sectors - primary, secondary and tertiary. Employment structures change over time.

Countries in the early stage of development usually have a high percentage of the population in primary employment. This is because most people are engaged in agricultural activities.

As a country begins to develop an industrial base there is an increase in the secondary sector. An increase in machinery on farms means fewer people are needed. People tend to migrate to urban areas to get jobs in factories.

When a country becomes more economically developed there is a greater demand for services such as education, health care and tourism. Therefore the tertiary sector undergoes growth. By this time computers, machinery and robots replace people in the secondary sector hence the decrease in secondary jobs.

Factors for Biopolis, Singapore

What makes Biopolis an attractive for companies and people? Click on image to read from A*Star webpages

Tourism as an industry

Tourism is the world's largest income earner and was worth $500 billion in 2007. Tourism has become a popular global leisure activity.

Human Geography terms - Quizlet

Types of jobs

How can employment be classified?
Jobs can be classified as primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary jobs.
Primary jobs involve getting raw materials from the natural environment e.g. Mining, farming and fishing.
Secondary jobs involve making things (manufacturing) e.g. making cars and steel.
Tertiary jobs involve providing a service e.g. teaching and nursing.
Quaternary jobs involve research and development e.g. IT.

Commercial agriculture in New Zealand

New Zealand is one of the world’s most efficient agricultural economies, with a reputation for producing internationally significant research, agriculture practices and products. 

New Zealand has a temperate climate and fertile soil, making the country ideal for agricultural production. Together with its support and processing components, the agriculture industry regularly contributes almost a quarter of New Zealand’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

Wet rice agriculture

In wet rice agriculture, seeds are sown in small seedbeds; the seedlings are then transplanted one by one to prepared paddy fields. While the plants are maturing, they must be kept irrigated, but as the rice ripens the fields are drained. The rice is then harvested and threshed by hand. Wet rice agriculture is labor-intensive, meaning that many people are required to do the job (source)

Types of tourism

Business or Pleasure

Pleasure: need for change, see something new
* Culture (ethnic)
* History, heritage
* Nature-based (eco-) tourism
* Farm-based, rural tourism
* Personal development, health
* Visit friends, family
* Social status (to brag!)
* Recreation



Adventure tourism

Beach holiday