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IGCSE Geography - Revision guide: Patterns of Population Growth

Patterns of population growth - On this page...

Population growth patterns

Russia's population decline - cause and effects

Gambia's rapid population growth - cause and effects

Total Fertility Rate - Definition

This entry gives a figure for the average number of children that would be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at each age.

This indicator shows the potential for population change in the country. A rate of two children per woman is considered the replacement rate for a population, resulting in relative stability in terms of total numbers.

Definition from Indexmundi.com

Russia Facts and Figures

TERRITORY
In terms of territory, Russia is the world's largest country. With a total area of 17,075,200 kilometers, Russia covers about 1/8th of the world's land surface. 
Russia stretches from its westernmost point in the city of Kaliningrad, just north of Warsaw, Poland, to its easternmost point at Big Diomede Island in the Bering Strait. Within eyesight is Little Diomede Island, belonging to the United States just off the coast of Alaska's Seward Peninsula.

POPULATION
The population of Russia was estimated at 146,001,176 (July 2000 est.) by official U.S. government sources. According to official figures, the Russian population growth rate is negative, declining at a rate of 3 % a year. The birth rate was at 9 births per 1,000 persons per year in 2000
Read more: Russia

Population Decline - Russian Television report

Watch this video to understand some of the reasons for Russia's population decline

Declining Population ?

In the 13 years between the last Soviet-era census of 1989 and the first Russian census of 2002, the population fell by 1.8 million.

And the population has fallen by another 500,000 over the past eight years. (Telegraph- UK)

US Aid for HIV in Russia

Beginning in 1998, USAID’s HIV/AIDS first activities in Russia focused on HIV prevention among youth. Since 2005, the focus has been on most at risk populations (MARPs).

Measures to check the spread of HIV in Russia

Russia has a well-developed HIV/AIDS infrastructure including the Federal AIDS Center, seven interregional AIDS centers, 88 regional AIDS centers. AIDS centers provide HIV/AIDS prevention, testing and counseling, treatment, surveillance and laboratory monitoring. 

As a part of the Federal Program for the “Prevention and Fight Against Socially Significant Diseases,”  Russia adopted a new “HIV Infection” subprogram.  Read more about these programs in this document.

Drug-resistant Tuberculosis in Russia

Research published in Bulletin, the WHO’s medical journal, reported that in some places in Russia, 29 percent of new TB cases are drug resistant.

Decline in Population

Incredible shrinking countries

DURING the second half of the 20th century, the global population explosion was the big demographic bogey. Now that worry has evaporated, and this century is spooking itself with the opposite fear: the onset of demographic decline.  Click on image to read The Economist article


Watch this video of Prof Hans Gosling explain this pattern 

UN - World Population Pyramids

The 2010 Revision of the World Population Prospects is the twenty-second round of global demographic estimates and projections undertaken by the Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat.

Click on image to access data, reports for various countries. Check out particularly our study cases of Russia and The Gambia!

Alcohol - a cause for Russian population decline??

Russia - HIV/AIDS, Is it an epidemic?

HIV AND AIDS ESTIMATES (2009) 

Number of people living with HIV

980,000 [840,000 - 1,200,000]

click on image to access UN Aids website with lots of data in interactive format

Gambia Population Stats

POPULATION AGE < 15

Gambia

World

44%
27%

 

TOTAL FERTILITY RATE

Gambia

World

5.0

2.5

Demographic Transition Model

 In demography, the term demographic transition is a theory describing a possible transition from high birth rates and death rates to low birth and death rates as part of the economic development of a country from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economy. (source)

Demographic Transition Model

click image to see explanation

2025 Population Pyramids - UK and Mozambique

Population Pyramid UK

UK population towards Stage 5 of the transition model

Population Pyramid Mozambique

Mozambique population towards Stage 2 of the transition model

The Gambia

Currency

Dalasi (GMD)

Surface area (square kilometres)

11295

Population in 2009 (estimated, 000)

1705

Population density in 2009 (per square kilometre)

151.0

Capital city and population in 2009 (000)

Banjul (436)

Demographic Indicators

 

Population (thousands), 2010, under 18

877

Population (thousands), 2010, under 5

287

Population annual growth rate (%),

1970-1990

3.7

Population annual growth rate (%),

1990-2010

2.9

Population annual growth rate (%),

2010-2030

2.4

(source UNICEF)

The Gambia's high population growth rate is one of the dominant factors that adversely affect most of its social, economic and environmental indicators. This rapid population growth is due to a high rate of natural increase and migration. Sectors such as health and education could hardly contain this population pressure, as services in these sectors have been stretched to their limits. Read from UNESCO report

Gambia Population Statistics

Population:

1983

1993

2003

2006f

Total

687,817

1,038,145

1,360,681

1,509,928

   Urban

211,889

385,400

684,158

820,193

   Rural

475,928

652,745

676,523

689,735

 

 

 

 

 

Urbanisation rate %

30.80 %

37.12 %

50.28 %

54.32%

Population density per Km2

64

97

127

138

Annual population growth rate (%)

3.8

4.2

2.7

2.7

 

 

 

 

 

Structure of Population per age group %

 

 

 

 

  - 0 to 14 years

43.76%

43.80%

41.98%

43.11%

  - 15 to 49 years

45.12

45.60%

48.13%

49.43%

  - 50 to 59 years

 

3.95%

3.94%

4.05%

  - 60 years and above

10.03%

4.98%

5.05%

5.19%

  - (Not Stated)

1.08%

1.68%

0.90%

0.92%

 

 

 

 

 

source