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KS3 Geography - Cool Antarctica: Protecting Antarctica

A guide to information resources on Antarctica for your year 8 Geography topic, compiled by your Librarians.

Protecting Antarctica

Meltwater Stream

Antarctic Stations

Click to see larger image

Antarctic Treaty Summit

Articles of the Antarctic Treaty

The 14 Articles of the Treaty may be summarized as follows:

1. Antarctica shall be used for peaceful purposes only; any military measures are prohibited.

2. Freedom of scientific investigation in Antarctica and co-operation as applied during IGY shall continue.

3. Plans for scientific programs and the observations and results thereof shall be freely exchanged; scientists may be exchanged between expeditions.

4. All national claims are held static from the date of signature. No future activity of any country during the life of the treaty can affect the status quo on any rights or claims to territorial sovereignty.

Read the remaining articles HERE  (the essence of first four is highlighted above)

Find another explanation of the articles HERE

Climate change and Antarctic

Watch how the Ozone hole has expanded

To view the changes in the Ozone hole between 1979 and 2011,

Click on image and select the 'Play' button on the new webpage

Who owns Antarctica?

No single country owns Antarctica. Instead, countries wishing to have a say in how the Antarctic (both the continent itself and the surrounding Southern Ocean) is governed must sign on to, and agree to abide by, the Antarctic Treaty. However, prior to the signing of the Antarctic Treaty in 1959 several countries had made claims to parts of Antarctica, some of which overlapped. The Treaty does not recognize or annul these claims. source

Discovery of Ozone Hole - Research in Antarctica

Jonathan Shanklin, Meteorologist at the British Antarctic Survey, was one of the team that discovered the ozone hole in 1985. Watch this video to understand the Ozone hole...

What is the Antarctic Treaty?

Click on image to view a video on Treaty Summit

The Antarctic Treaty System is the whole complex of arrangements made for the purpose of regulating relations among states in the Antarctic.

The original Parties to the Treaty were the 12 nations active in the Antarctic during the International Geophysical Year of 1957-58. Original Signatories include United Kingdom, South Africa, Belgium, Japan, United States of America, Norway, France, New Zealand, Russia, Argentina, Australia, Chile

  • The primary purpose of the Antarctic Treaty is to ensure "in the interests of all mankind that Antarctica shall continue forever to be used exclusively for peaceful purposes and shall not become the scene or object of international discord."
  • To this end it prohibits military activity, except in support of science; prohibits nuclear explosions and the disposal of nuclear waste; promotes scientific research and the exchange of data; and holds all territorial claims in abeyance.
  • The Treaty applies to the area south of 60° South Latitude, including all ice shelves and islands.

See source

Why is the penguin population declining?

Penguin population an indication of climate change ?  Read these articles to find out more...

Lee Hotz on TED talks

Science columnist Lee Hotz describes a remarkable project at WAIS Divide, Antarctica, where a hardy team are drilling into ten-thousand-year-old ice to extract vital data on our changing climate

Get the latest from British Antarctic Survey website

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Books in the Senior Library

The following books include information about protecting Antarctica:

Protect Antarctica

Read the article by clicking on image and post your vote !! 

Do you agree with James Barnes? Does Antarctica need more protection? 

Protect Antarctica
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Kyoto Protocol

What is the Kyoto Protocol?

The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement setting targets for industrialised countries to cut their greenhouse gas emissions. Read more here