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The 14 Articles of the Treaty may be summarized as follows:
1. Antarctica shall be used for peaceful purposes only; any military measures are prohibited.
2. Freedom of scientific investigation in Antarctica and co-operation as applied during IGY shall continue.
3. Plans for scientific programs and the observations and results thereof shall be freely exchanged; scientists may be exchanged between expeditions.
4. All national claims are held static from the date of signature. No future activity of any country during the life of the treaty can affect the status quo on any rights or claims to territorial sovereignty.
Read the remaining articles HERE (the essence of first four is highlighted above)
Humanity's impact on climate has been detected on every continent except Antarctica, or so said the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in February 2007. No longer...
Watch how the Ozone hole has expanded
To view the changes in the Ozone hole between 1979 and 2011,
Click on image and select the 'Play' button on the new webpage
Who owns Antarctica?
No single country owns Antarctica. Instead, countries wishing to have a say in how the Antarctic (both the continent itself and the surrounding Southern Ocean) is governed must sign on to, and agree to abide by, the Antarctic Treaty.However, prior to the signing of the Antarctic Treaty in 1959 several countries had made claims to parts of Antarctica, some of which overlapped.The Treaty does not recognize or annul these claims. source
Discovery of Ozone Hole - Research in Antarctica
Jonathan Shanklin, Meteorologist at the British Antarctic Survey, was one of the team that discovered the ozone hole in 1985. Watch this video to understand the Ozone hole...
Colder than average temperatures in the stratosphere during 2011 caused a larger than average ozone hole above Antarctica, according to NASA and NOAA data.
What is the Antarctic Treaty?
Click on image to view a video on Treaty Summit
The Antarctic Treaty System is the whole complex of arrangements made for the purpose of regulating relations among states in the Antarctic.
The originalParties to the Treaty were the 12 nations active in the Antarctic during the International Geophysical Year of 1957-58. Original Signatories include United Kingdom, South Africa, Belgium, Japan, United States of America, Norway, France, New Zealand, Russia, Argentina, Australia, Chile
The primary purpose of the Antarctic Treaty is to ensure "in the interests of all mankind that Antarctica shall continue forever to be used exclusively for peaceful purposes and shall not become the scene or object of international discord."
To this end it prohibits military activity, except in support of science; prohibits nuclear explosions and the disposal of nuclear waste; promotes scientific research and the exchange of data; and holds all territorial claims in abeyance.
The Treaty applies to the area south of 60° South Latitude, including all ice shelves and islands.
Frozen Oceans follows the expeditions of polar scientists in the Arctic and Antarctic as they investigate the life found in and around the ice caps, which cover up to 13 percent of the Earth's surface. Look at chapter 10, from page 200, for information on threats and potential for the polar regions.
The attempt to reach a new international settlement on greenhouse gas emissions to follow on from the Kyoto Protocol, which runs out in 2012, is probably the most important single issue within the field of international climate change politics.