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IB History - Aspects of the history of Europe and the Middle East: Unification and Consolidation of Germany...

A guide to resources which are particularly useful for Topic 1 of your IB History course

German Unification

Otto von Bismarck (!815-1898)

Relevant Chapters


Follow this link for Documents of German Unification 1848-71 including speeches, letters and the 'Imperial Proclamation'.

And head here for a Map of Alliances in 1866


Compare and contrast the following two analyses:

Wallar, B. (1998): 'Bismarck', History Review, pp.40ff.

Bruce Waller looks at recent debate about modern Germany's greatest statesman

Feuchtwanger, E. (2001): 'Bismarck, Prussia and German Nationalism', History Review, p.14

Edgar Feuchtwanger assesses Bismarck's controversial career and legacy

See also:

Wallar, B. (1998): Germans, Germany and Unification before Bismarck, New Perspective 4

for some background information


Key Questions

Which was more important to German unification - the policies of Bismarck or a weakening Austria?

'Diplomacy, economic reform and war were Bismarck's tools in promoting unification.'  Discuss.

What caused the 1848 revolutions?

Did Bismarck overstate his own achievements during the 70s and 80s?


Why did Austria not unify Germany?


'After 1871, Bismarck was of little benefit to Germany's future.'  Discuss.


What led to Prussia's rise over Austria?


Was war a political instrument for Bismarck?


Were the 1848 revolutions a complete failure?





Bismarck's Domestic Policy

Blast your way through Bismarck's Domestic Policy with this interactive quiz

The King's Speech

Read Friedrich's speech on p. 269-70 of Samuel Johnson's the Rambler considering what it suggests are the damaging consequences for German disunity in 1848


Map of German Reich 1871–1918: kgberger (CC)